The project management methodology is the most widely used framework in the world. Organizations hire project managers who are knowledgeable and skilled in using the project management methodology in practice. These Project Management Professionals (PMPs) help their organizations create a solid foundation for the project management methodology by following the 10 knowledge areas and 49 processes of project management. PMI (Project Management Institute), the world’s leading organization for project management, has outlined a process-based framework for leading, managing, and completing projects.
According to the PMBOK (Project Management Book of Knowledge) Guide created by PMI, the project management methodology consists of ten knowledge areas. Each knowledge area has a certain number of processes mentioned in the PMBOK® 6th edition. PMP Certification aspirants and future project managers must thoroughly understand these ten knowledge areas and 49 PMP processes. It will help aspiring project managers to pass their PMP Exam in 2022 and help them lead and manage projects for organizations they work with in the future.
10 Knowledge Areas of Project Management
The project management discipline has five phases or process groups. These are:
- Initiating – This phase or process group includes processes required to begin a project.
- Planning – These include processes associated with the project planning and defining the course of the project.
- Executing – This process group includes all processes related to project execution.
- Monitoring and Controlling – Processes that help project managers in monitoring and control the project’s progression and performance are included in this phase.
- Closing – This phase includes the processes required to deliver the completed project.
Each process group or phase mentioned above includes certain knowledge areas, which are further broken down into the 49 processes of project management. The ten knowledge areas of project management as mentioned in the PMBOK Guide are as follows:
- Project Integration Management
- Project Scope Management
- Project Schedule Management
- Project Cost Management
- Project Quality Management
- Project Resource Management
- Project Communications Management
- Project Risk Management
- Project Procurement Management
- Project Stakeholder Management
49 Project Management Processes
Project Managers follow these ten knowledge areas to lead and direct projects. Understanding these project management knowledge areas helps project managers reach their organizations’ desired project objectives. These knowledge areas are divided into the 49 processes of project management. They are:
Project Integration Management
This project management knowledge area describes the role of a project manager in integrating different aspects of the project. These include project management processes, the tasks assigned, and activities to achieve project success. The processes associated with Integration Management are as follows:
- Develop Project Charter – The project charter is created in this PMP process. Once the project stakeholders approve it, this acts as the guideline for the project.
- Develop Project Management Plan – This process helps define, prepare, and coordinate all the project plan components.
- Direct and Manage Project Work – This process involves leading and performing tasks defined by the project management plan.
- Manage Project Knowledge – The new knowledge about the project and its objectives is created and implemented.
- Monitor and Control Project Work – The project is observed, measured, and reported here.
- Perform Integrated Change Control – In this process, the project stakeholders review and approve the change requests through appropriate communication means.
- Close Project or Phase – The final activities of the project, including its closing procedure, are included in this process.
Project Scope Management
This knowledge area includes the activities related to the project scope. It also involves tasks that directly affect the project’s scope and ensure that the project management team is aware of them. Here are the PMP processes associated with Scope Management:
- Plan Scope Management – The main objective is to create a project scope management plan.
- Collect Requirements – Here, the foundation of the project scope is created by collecting the requirements of all the project stakeholders in documents.
- Define Scope – This process helps define the project scope in detail, including creating boundaries and acceptance criteria.
- Create WBS – The work breakdown structure (WBS) is created in this process. Using a WBS, the project deliverables can be divided into short and manageable tasks.
- Validate Scope – The final project deliverables are matched with the acceptance criteria to validate the project scope in this process.
- Control Scope – Monitoring and controlling the project scope by measuring the scope baseline occurs here.
Project Schedule Management
The project schedule is planned, monitored, and controlled in this project management knowledge area. The project management processes under Schedule Management are as follows:
- Plan Schedule Management – This process involves defining the project schedule, including planning and controlling project’s timeline.
- Define Activities – The actions required to achieve the project deliverables are identified and created here.
- Sequence Activities – This process identifies and documents the relationships between project activities and any dependencies on other external activities.
- Estimate Activity Durations – The duration of each project activity is measured and estimated here.
- Develop Schedule – Activity sequences and resource requirements are used to develop the project schedule.
- Control Schedule – The main aim of this process is to reach the schedule baseline by monitoring the project activities and controlling the project schedule.
Project Cost Management
This involves the project management processes to plan and manage the project’s budget. The processes under Cost Management are:
- Plan Cost Management – It defines the guidelines to estimate the project costs, including the suitable approaches to manage and monitor them.
- Estimate Costs – Here, an approximation of the project costs is defined.
- Determine Budget – In this process, the cost baseline is created by considering the estimated project costs.
- Control Costs – The process aims at monitoring and managing the actual costs with the planned costs.
Project Quality Management
In this project management knowledge area, the processes and activities to define the project’s quality standards is carried out. These are as follows:
- Plan Quality Management – Here the quality requirements of the projects are defined, and guidelines for maintaining these quality standards are established.
- Manage Quality – This process involves all activities the project management team must follow to ensure that the defined quality standards are fulfilled.
- Control Quality – The project quality is maintained and controlled using specific quality management tools and techniques in this quality management process.
Project Resource Management
This PMP knowledge area includes all the processes and activities related to optimum project resource management. Some of the PMP processes under this knowledge area are:
- Plan Resource Management – This process defines the project’s resource requirements and creates a guideline of how they will be allocated to the project management team.
- Estimate Activity Resources – The project resources are estimated to ensure that the project management team completes the tasks on time.
- Acquire Resources – In this process, the project resources are acquired.
- Develop Team – A team is developed to optimize the project resources to attain the project goals.
- Manage Team – The project team’s performance is tracked and monitored to manage and adjust the project resources.
- Control Resources – This process ensures that the project resources are used according to the plan, and corrective actions are taken whenever possible.
Project Communications Management
In this PMP knowledge area, the proper means of communication of vital project information are defined and described. The processes involved in Communications Management are as follows:
- Plan Communications Management – The acceptable criteria for project communications with all project stakeholders is established in this process.
- Manage Communications – In this process, the project information is communicated with the project stakeholders to maintain a constant flow of information from the project manager and the project team.
- Monitor Communications – This process ensures that the project communications are happening on time.
Project Risk Management
This project management knowledge area focuses on the various project risks and practical risk management activities. Here are the PMP processes related to Project Risk Management:
- Plan Risk Management – Here, the risk management plan is created for various risks.
- Identify Risks – In this process, the project risks are identified.
- Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis – After risk identification, risks are categorized into sections based on the priority and impact level.
- Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis – This process involves analyzing risks based on statistical analysis.
- Plan Risk Responses – The mitigation strategy for each potential project risk is developed here.
- Implement Risk Responses – The risk mitigation plan is applied and implemented in this process.
- Monitor Risks – The project risks are monitored and controlled to ensure minimum impact on the overall project objectives.
Project Procurement Management
This knowledge area includes processes and activities related to purchasing and acquiring project materials. Processes in Procurement Management are:
- Plan Procurement Management – It lists the documents, agreements, and approaches to procure project supplies.
- Conduct Procurements – The project materials are acquired or procured from various suppliers and vendors by implementing the agreement or contracts.
- Control Procurements – The project procurements are monitored and controlled according to the agreements.
Project Stakeholder Management
This project management knowledge area involves all the activities and processes concerning the project’s stakeholders. Some of the processes included in Stakeholder Management are as follows:
- Identify Stakeholders – Identifying the project stakeholders and analyzing their interests in the project happens in this process.
- Plan Stakeholder Engagement – This process deals with planning and defining the engagement level of different stakeholders.
- Manage Stakeholder Engagement – Here, the engagement levels of various stakeholders are managed by addressing their expectations from the project.
- Monitor Stakeholder Engagement – This process helps monitor stakeholder engagement by developing the appropriate strategies to engage stakeholders in the best possible manner.
Learning about these 49 processes of project management included in the ten project management knowledge areas will help PMP aspirants to lead and direct projects for their organizations. However, these ten knowledge areas and PMP 49 processes are part of the sixth edition of Project Management Body of Knowledge Guide. According to the new PMP Exam Content Outline, there are some changes in the examination to attain the PMP Certification. Candidates preparing for the PMP certification examination in 2022 must refer to the new content and follow the PMBOK® Guide, Seventh Edition. All PMP aspirants should be aware of this since this is the latest PMI publication that outlines the standards of project management methodology, including domains and principles.